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Rodzajniki określone, nieokreślone, zerowe - Der Artikel PDF Drukuj Email

Rodzajnik określone, nieokreślone, zerowe - Der Artikel

 

Kiedy mówimy o rodzajnikach musimy wiedzieć, że rodzajnik jest ściśle powiązany z rzeczownikiem. Rodzajnik, obojętnie czy określony czy nieokreślony, zawsze stoi przed rzeczownikiem. Są również przypadki, że w ogóle się pomija rodzajnik. Wtedy jest to tzw. rodzajnik zerowy.  Rodzajniki wskazują nam jakiego rodzaju jest dany rzeczownik np. der Mann – mężczyzna (rodzaj męski), die Frau – kobieta (rodzaj żeński), das Kind – dziecko (rodzaj nijaki). Należy przy tym pamiętać, że nie zawsze rodzaj w języku niemieckim pokrywa się z tym w języku polskim np. die Blume (rodzaj żeński) – ten kwiatek (rodzaj męski), das Mädchen (rodzaj nijaki) – ta dziewczyna (rodzaj żeński).

 

Na początku omówimy rodzajnik nieokreślony.

Rodzajnika nieokreślonego używamy:


1. przed rzeczownikami o których nic bliżej nie wiemy, o których mówimy po raz pierwszy np.

Das ist ein Auto. – To jest jakiś samochód.

Ein Herr geht – Jakiś pan idzie.

 

Należy przy tym zwrócić uwagę na to, że rodzajnik nieokreślony nie ma liczby mnogiej. I kiedy mówimy po raz pierwszy o czymś w liczbie mnogiej wówczas nie używamy rodzajnika.

Das sind Autos – To są samochody.

Herren gehen. Jacyś panowie idą.


2. po wyrażeniu es gibt (jest, są) np.

Es gibt hier in der Nähe eine Toilette. – Tutaj w pobliżu jest toaleta.

 

Odmiana rodzajnika nieokreślonego:


Maskulinum

Femininum

Neutrum

Plural

Nominativ

ein

eine

ein

-------

Genitiv

eines

einer

eines

-------

Dativ

einem

einer

einem

-------

Akkusativ

einen

eine

ein

-------


Małe objaśnienie do tabelki

Pod Maskulinum (rodzaj męski) Femininum (rodzaj żeński) i Neutrum(rodzaj nijaki) są odmienione rodzajniki do liczby pojedynczej a tam gdzie jest Plural to do liczby mnogiej. Czyli jak widzimy w liczbie mnogiej rodzajnik nieokreślony w ogóle nie występuje.


Teraz zajmiemy się rodzajnikiem określonym, którego używamy najczęściej:


1. kiedy mówimy o rzeczach osobach o których była już mowa w poprzednim zdaniu np.

Das ist ein Buch. Das Buch ist spannend. – To jest jakaś książka. Ta książka jest interesująca

Das ist eine Frau. Die Frau ist jung. To jest jakaś pani. Ta pani jest młoda.


2. przed nazwami krajów i krain geograficznych w rodzaju męskim i żeńskim jak:

Die Schweiz, die Türkei, der Irak, der Suden


3. przed nazwami gór, rzek i mórz np.

Die Oder – Odra der Rhein – Ren

Die Ostsee – Morze Bałtyckie.


4. przed rzeczownikami uważanymi za jedyne na świecie np.

Die Sonne – słońce, die Welt – świat.


Odmiana rzeczownika określonego:


Maskulinum

Femininum

Neutrum

Plural

Nominativ

der

die

das

die

Genitiv

des

der

des

der

Dativ

dem

der

dem

den

Akkusativ

den

die

das

die


Teraz podam sytuacje kiedy występuję rodzajnik zerowy a więc kiedy po prostu nie ma rodzajnika.

 

Rodzajnik opuszczamy :

1. przed imionami, nazwiskami, nazwami krajów które są rodzaju nijakiego np.

Stefan, Otto,  Ursula imiona.

Polen , Deutschland państwa.


2. przy rzeczownikach materiałowych nieokreślonych bliżej np.

Dieser Ring ist aus Gold. – Pierścionek jest ze złota.


3. kiedy przed rzeczownikiem jest viel – dużo lub wenig – mało.

Ich habe viel Geld. – Mam dużo pieniędzy.

Er isst wenig Obst. – On je mało owoców.


4. kiedy mówimy o czymś po raz pierwszy w liczbie mnogiej:

Hier wachsen Blumen. – Tutaj rosną kwiaty.


5. kiedy stosujemy rzeczownika oznaczające zawód, funkcję lub narodowość:

Er ist Pole. – On jest Polakiem.

Sie ist Ärztin. – Ona jest lekarką.



 

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