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Czas teraźniejszy - Präsens PDF Drukuj Email

Czas teraźniejszy - Präsens

 

Czas Präsens jest stosowany najczęściej do:


1. wyrażania pewnego stanu rzeczy a także czynności która trwa w momencie mówienie np:

Es ist kalt Jest zimno

Er trinkt Kaffee – On piję kawę

Seine Tochter studiert in Berlin – Jego córka studiuje w Berlinie

 

Co ciekawe czasem Präsens możemy wyrazić pewien stan rzeczy rozpoczęty w przeszłości, który jednak nadal trwa np.:

Er arbeitet seit 3 Jahren in dieser Firma – On pracuje od trzech lat w tej firmie


2. wyrażania przyszłości: Jednak jeżeli chcemy wyrazić jakieś zdarzenie które dopiero się wydarzy musimy w zdaniu umieścić okoliczniki czasu. Są to na przykład "morgen" (jutro) "In einer Woche" (za tydzień) "In zehn Minuten" (Za dziesięć minut)

Kilka przykładowych zdań:

In einer Woche fahre ich nach Krakau – Za tydzień pojadę do Krakowa

Ich gehe morgen zu dir – Jutro do ciebie przyjdę


3. wyrażania ogólnie przyjętych prawd i przysłów:

Hunde bellen und Katzen miauen – Psy szczekają a koty miałczą

Die Erde dreht sich – Ziemia obraca się

Aller Anfang ist schwer – Pierwsze koty za płoty


4. wyrażania przypuszczenia:

Er ist vermutlich zu Hause – On prawdopodobnie jest w domu

Er ruft vermutlich morgen an – Zadzwoni prawdopodobnie jutro


Teraz chciałbym wyjaśnić jak odmieniają się czasowniki w czasie Präsens.

 

Na początek omówimy sobie kilka czasowników regularnych (słabych) takich jak np. kommen – pochodzić, przychodzić. Aby odmienić czasownik odcinamy końcówkę -en i dodajemy następujące końcówki w poszczególnych osobach, które zostały oznaczone kolorem w poniższej tabeli.


ich komme

wir kommen

du kommst

ihr kommt

er sie es kommt

Sie sie kommen

 

Inny czasownik regularny to np. singen – śpiewać


ich singe

wir singen

du singst

ihr singt

er sie es singt

Sie sie singen


Ważna uwaga dotyczy czasowników regularnych:

Jeżeli temat czasownika kończy się  na –t, -d, (wart-en, antwort-en) lub –ffn, chn, tmffn--en, rechn-en, atm-en), wówczas takie czasowniki w 2. osobie liczby pojedynczej i mnogiej oraz w 3. osobie liczby pojedynczej otrzymują dodatkowo końcówkę –e.

Dla przykładu podam odmianę czasownika arbeiten – pracować:


ich arbeite

wir arbeiten

du arbeitest

ihr arbeitet

er sie es arbeitet

Sie sie arbeiten


Teraz opiszę jak wygląda odmiana czasowników nieregularnych (mocnych). Nieregularność ich polega na tym że podczas odmiany zmieniają się ich samogłoski rdzenne w 2. i 3. osobie liczby pojedynczej. Np. e zmienia się na i albo i na ie oraz a na ä. Do takich czasowników należą helfen – pomagać, sprechen – mówić, nehmen – brać, lesen – czytać, sehen – widzieć.


ich spreche

wir sprechen

du sprichst

ihr sprecht

er sie es spricht

Sie sie sprechen


ich nehme

wir nehmen

du nimmst

ihr nehmt

er sie es nimmt

Sie sie nehmen


ich fahre

wir fahren

du fährst

ihr fahrt

er sie es fährt

Sie sie fahren



Należy pamiętać o dwóch czasownikach, które odmieniają się całkiem inaczej niż regularne i nieregularne. Chodzi tutaj o:

 

haben – mieć

ich habe

wir haben

du hast

ihr habt

er sie es hat

Sie sie haben


sein  – być

ich bin

wir sind

du bist

ihr seid

er sie es ist

Sie sie sind


 

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